By William D. Davies
Madurese is a tremendous nearby language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, as a rule at the island of Madura and adjoining components of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there is not any present accomplished descriptive grammar of the language, with present reports being both sketches of the full grammar, or distinct descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific issues inside those elements of the grammar. there isn't any competing paintings that gives the breadth and intensity of insurance of this grammar, particularly (though no longer completely) in regards to syntax.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Madurese
Dental nasals occur adjacent to both dental and retroflex stops. (17) [əmpa] ‘four’ [manɔ] ‘son-in-law’ [kalɛnṭɔ] ‘handcuffs’ [kaɲca] ‘friend’ [sɛkɔ] ‘I’ [tampɤ] ‘mine’ [kanɤs] ‘run aground’ [manṭ] ‘bathe’ [əɲcɤk] ‘pedal’ [akuj] ‘use’ [ambu] ‘stop’ [səndu] ‘difference’ [tanḍəs] ‘fast’ [giɲu] ‘lively’ [agɤ] ‘conceited There are a small number of exceptions to this; for the most part, these are instances involving the velar nasal, such as [aa] ‘dance’, [brubuan] ‘sheath’, [bɤrɤa] ‘infatuated’, [palɛpɛ] ‘deaf’, [aɤ] ‘unequal’,[karat.
51) ɔlɛs ‘write’ + ɛ ‘DUR’ ɛrɛm ‘send’ + ɛ ‘LOC’ pukɔs ‘wrap’ + an ‘NOM’ ɤwɤp ‘answer’ + an ‘NOM nɔɔp ‘close’ + a ‘IRR’ ɔlɛsɛ] ‘write’ (DUR)’ [ɛrɛmɛ]’send to’ [pukɔsan] ‘package’ [ɤwɤpɤn] ‘answer’ [nɔɔpɤ] ‘close (IRR)’ Note that it is entirely possible that like -insertion and glide-epenthesis, this type of gemination may occur word internally as well. For example, the root 26 The forms [nakəpp] ‘will catch’ and [mujɨkki] ‘strike repeatedly’ undergo the process of aspiration (discussed in section 6) in addition to gemination.
The processes by which these forms are derived are presented in later sections. 7 6 [ɤ] is used to transcribe the Sundanese equivalent of this vowel as well, which is sometimes described as a mid-back unrounded vowel, but which like the Madurese vowel is a mid-close central unrounded vowel by acoustic measurement. 7 Even in many borrowings, /w/ is realized as /b/. , birit [biri] ‘pray’, Indonesian wirid from Arabic. Sound correspondences 21 (1) Madurese /batu/ /baktɔ/ /caba/ /labang/ /ɛbɛ/ /baca/ [bɤɔ [bɤɔ cɤbɤ [labɤ [ibi [bɤca] Indonesian /watu/ /waktu/ /awa/ (/pintu/) (/diri/) /baca/ Javanese /watu/ /waktu/ /awa/ /lawang/ /d.
A Grammar of Madurese by William D. Davies