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By Rasmus Rask

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Note that neuter does not mean ‘genderless’ (cf. the natural gender system above), but is simply a conventional term for the third gender in a three-way system. 11 1111 011 311 011 011 011 1111 43 DRAWBACKS OF A GRAMMATICAL GENDER SYSTEM In a natural gender system, meaning is everything; in a grammatical gender system, meaning is not the sole arbiter of gender (because of the inanimates), and this means that sometimes the assigning of gender is bound to be either apparently arbitrary, or based on other considerations, of which the most likely is the form of the word itself.

Therefore in isolation we find: alarch hebog barcud swan hawk kite yr alarch the swan yr hebog the hawk y barcud the kite [begins with a vowel] [begins with h-] [begins with a consonant] but: i’r alarch i’r hebog i’r barcud to the swan to the hawk to the kite because in all these cases the preceding word ends in a vowel, nullifying all other considerations as to the form of the article. 30 Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar 26 The definite article with singular and plural nouns Whether the following noun is singular or plural makes no difference to the form of the definite article in Welsh, and the principles outlined in §25 above are operated independently of this factor.

B) Nouns (usually but not always abstract) derived from adjectives and verbs, ending in: -ad, -iad -der -did -dod -dra -eb -edd 51 -had -i -iant -ni -rwydd -wch NOUNS FEMININE BY FORM The following types are feminine by form. (a) Nouns ending in -en and -es. g. talcen (m) forehead. Note also that many feminines in -en are c/u nouns (see §90). 11 1111 011 311 011 011 011 1111 Nouns 45 (b) Many derived nouns (mostly abstract) ending in -aeth and some in -as. Examples: cenhedlaeth swyddogaeth priodas perthynas generation function, duty wedding relation(ship) Several commonly used nouns in -aeth are masculine, however, notably gwasanaeth service and gwahaniaeth difference.

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A grammar of the Danish language for the Englishmen by Rasmus Rask

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